Kitchen Science

I have always thought it would be amazing to center a chemistry class completely around what happens in the kitchen.  After all, every time a person bakes or cooks, they performing several different science experiments at once.  Combining ingredients in a specific way (stoichiometry, reactions, kinetics), watching things rise and fall (gas laws), learning the heartbreak of failure (all science all the time).  Okay, I am hopefully just kidding about the last one, but I mean, it is all there.  That is why I was so excited when I came across this article from NatGeo that provides an amazing example of doing just this with kids!  Let kids play with the ingredients of cookies.

I would actually take this experiment even a step further.  Have your kiddo keep notes on what they are adding.  Let them track the height and width of the cookie.  Let them write down observations of taste of the batter (if you are willing) and the end product.  This is a really nice summer activity.  Full disclosure: I could see this taking a long time, especially if the kids are really young (think 3rd grade and below).  However, this is an amazing way to let kids keep thinking about the science that they know and really letting them apply the scientific method.

And as a quick aside, I will remind you of my last post that talked about the amount of knowledge lost over the summer breaks.  This activity can also help students keep their math skills sharp!  Double Win!!

I will also write up a shorter version of this and provide a lab notebook page on our website (I will link it a little later) if you want your child to be able to take some notes while going through this.

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2015/01/09/experimental-cookie-science/

12 Minutes to a Better Brain

Exercise as “Brain Food” and Its Impact on How We Le

I am sure we are all familiar with the old adages “Drink your milk, it will make your bones strong” and “Eat your spinach, so your muscles will be big like Popeye’s”.

As common and “parental” as these phrases may seem, they are actually backed by science. The calcium our body absorbs when we drink milk is related to bone strength. The vitamins and minerals in spinach (and many other vegetables) will allow our body to function in a better way, giving us more energy to become strong. There is a new idea circulating in research (as well as mainstream media) and the evidence based recommendation is:

“Get heart pumping exercise to strengthen your BRAIN

Brain

 

Not your heart, not your muscles, not your lungs, though those results will also occur and be beneficial. However the focus of the emerging research I am referring to is showing that aerobic or vigorous exercise likely leads to increases in brain function (also known as “cognition”) and improve a person’s memory, attention, and academic performance overall.

How does this work?

First a little background on how fascinating our brains are…

Remember the days of Play Doh? Molding, mashing, creating- keeping us busy for hours? Remember what happened if you left the Play Doh out of its container for too long (ok maybe it was just me who did this as a little kid?). Let me fill you in- it becomes rock solid. Yup, no more forming dogs and houses and “doh” patties. It was literally unable to be shaped. About 100 years ago that is how scientists viewed our brains, once formed, sort of hard and “un-moldable”. However, many brilliant scientists over the years have thankfully discovered that our brains are not “stuck” after a certain age. Our brains are actually constantly adapting and responding, a concept with a fancy name termed “neuroplasticity”. Neuroplasticity simply means that our brains can change and DO change, depending on what kind of “stuff” we put in it. This type of stuff that influences our brain includes:

  • What we listen to: loud music, background noise; research shows that young children and babies who are exposed to great amounts of noise (White noise, background noise, tv produced noise) may have significant negative effects on their attention and learning later in life.
  • What we see: images that we watch on tv and movies, pictures we look at influence how our brains experience real life. It can be a negative experience if we “feed” our brains with violent, angry or traumatic images on a regular basis. On the other hand when we provide our brains with positive, relaxing and funny input, it can boost our body systems as a whole.
  • What we eat: foods high in antioxidants (berries, greens, and yes, DARK CHOCOLATE) protects the insulation cells in our brain keeping it functioning as fast as we need it to
  • What and how we learn: this is one of the hottest topics in research right now, as we are seeing that even well into adulthood (When brains are LESS likely to change) the connections in our brain can be strengthened with learning new tasks (such as a language, or a picking up a new creative hobby such as painting or drawing), reading new material, or doing word and number puzzles.
  • How we rest: The importance of sleep, and good quality sleep (READ: NO TV, MORE THAN 6 HOURS, etc) is essential to maximizing our brain potential
  • HOW WE MOVE: This is the main point of this post and will be the focus from here on out…

 

Scientists have discovered that when we exercise (especially when we perform aerobic exercise; meaning heart pumping, heavy breathing, maybe even break a sweat type exercise) that our brains respond by releasing an amazing chemical called BDNF. The long and very complex name for this chemical is brain derived neurotrophic factor. But actually, I prefer to refer to it as “Big Deal Neuro Food”.

This extremely powerful little chemical leads to BIG changes in our brain circuitry. Think of your brain as a series of wires, all criss- crossed and interconnected like a web.

 

We have billions of these connections and wires in our brains, each with their own unique path to perform one aspect of our daily lives. We have areas of our brain responsible for our emotions, our memory, our judgements and our attention allowing us to perform complex tasks or read or favorite books. There are circuits that allow a sense of joy to come along with the scent of mom’s fresh baked cookies, or the clear memory of your first best friend. Our brain does SO MANY wonderful things for us. It’s only fair we do some good for it!

 

 

Image from www.noigroup.com

Here is a very simple representation of what happens to the pathways in our brain when we exercise:

Infographic Sarah

 

Keep in mind these pathways can be even stronger when you feed it “good food” from all of the other items listed above (what we see, learn, eat, etc). The other great news is that you do not have to LOVE exercise or be a marathon runner to experience these benefits.

A study conducted on middle school aged children showed that just 12 minutes of vigorous exercise had a positive effect on their attention and academic related performance. This is not just for kids!

A study of healthy adults demonstrated significant improvements in tests for attention and memory after participating in aerobic exercise for 30 minutes. This is great news, as this means that it is accessible for everyone (ie. You do not need fancy equipment or a gym) as well as doable even with a busy schedule. There are so many forms of exercise out there to get our hearts pumping; it can be running, but it can also be so many other things, dancing vigorously, swimming, jumping jacks, kickboxing/ punching bag, biking, hiking, jump rope… the list could go on! As a physical therapist working with patients with spinal cord injury I taught my patients who were unable to move their lower body at all how to get a great aerobic workout with their upper bodies. IT IS POSSIBLE & IT IS NECESSARY.

It saddens me when I hear about physical education and sports programs being cut from schools. We are literally working against ourselves and putting kids at a disadvantage by plunking them in a desk to sit all day and requiring them to be attentive and learn. Our bodies were not made to sit all day (for a great read: Sitting is the New Smoking) and it is certainly not an optimal environment for our brains to get stronger.

As now a professor teaching graduate students, one of the things I encourage MOST often and especially around examination time, is regular vigorous exercise, as well as sleep.

Keep this in mind next time you go outside for some fresh air, you’re in gym class, shooting hoops with friends, and just anytime you are taking time for yourself to get that heart going… you are doing more than just increasing your heart health, your mood and overall well- being; you are BOOSTING YOUR BRAIN!

 

But WHY Do I Run?

By Meghan Pearson

But WHY Do I Run?

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(As you can see, I always take it seriously…)

Running has always been a part of my life. I began by running around with my neighbors, then played soccer, then ran cross-country, and now, since I am a glutton for punishment, I run marathons. And before you ask, yes, I actually enjoy doing it. Luckily for me, recent science shows I am actually doing interesting things to my brain while I am running.

For the next month, Inner City Science and Faces of STEM will be reporting about exercise and science and the science of exercise. We are going to look at it from a lot of different perspectives, so stay tuned!

Introduction:

Exercise has long been known to have important health effects. We have all been told that it is an important part of life if we want to live long and prosper (ha!), but the why is a little harder to put into words. I am going to start with some basic studies that looked at what effect exercise had on the aging mind.

As we age, our bodies start to fail on us. It’s a slow process, but we have all probably seen or felt it. Maybe the metabolism slows, maybe the brain can’t remember things, or maybe there is the sudden urge to yell at kids to get off the lawn. The last one is a silly example, but you get the idea. Aging stinks. But research is actually starting to pour in that by exercising, we can slow (and sometimes reverse) some of the effects on aging.

Methods and Materials:

As stated above, there is much research in this topic; however, it should be noted as human testing is still very frowned on, most of these studies are done on mice and rats. Why is this still relative? Well, it turns out we are pretty similar to rats and mice (evolution is cool!)

Many scientists are interested in how to best preserve their brain power. In one such study, they began by comparing the learning abilities and new nerve cell growth of mice from four different groups: sedentary young mice, sedentary old mice, exercising young mice, and exercising old mice. They provided the third and fourth groups (the exercisers) with a wheel and monitored their use.

Results:

This is where it gets cool. They then compared how the mice performed on different a specific maze learning test, and it turns out, the mice that exercised did better! But it gets even better. While there was a difference in the performance between the young and old mice, the old mice performed outperformed their sedentary old mice peers, and in some regards, performed similarly to the young mice of the sedentary group. The mice were able to learn more effectively when they exercised. In fact, when the researchers looked at the brains of the mice, they found that the old mice that exercised had increased their neurogenesis. This is the scientific word for they were once again creating new dendrites: nerve cells! The old mice were not able to make as many new cells as their young peers, but the old mice that exercised showed more new growth than the sedentary old mice. They were reversing some of the effects of aging. It should also be noted that the old mice were all kept sedentary until they were 19 months old (remember, the life span of mice is only about two years…). These researchers believe that beginning to exercise sooner may have lessened the effects of aging even more.

Discussion:

So what does this mean for us? Well, it is pretty good motivation to get out the door and go exercise, but it also means that there are some pretty good indicators that exercising could help us feel young for longer. Human application of these studies is never perfect, but it is usually close. The sooner a person starts exercising, the sooner they can begin to have these benefits. So go outside, go to the park, chase your kids around. Give your brain a few extra dendrites so you can feel better for longer!

If you would like to read one of the papers about this topic, I encourage you to read Exercise Enhances Learning and Hippocampal Neurogensis in Aged Mice by Henriette van Praag et al.

Monty Hydrogen and the Quest for the Holy Fusion Reaction

By Terry Caston

It is the year 1820, just around the dawn of the industrial revolution. The world population is about 1 billion. You were probably born on a farm, work hard every day growing all your own food, and you may never leave your hometown your entire life. If you wanted to say happy birthday to granny who lives across the country, you sent a letter in the mail months in advance. If you wanted to read a book when the sun went down, you lit a candle-which you probably made by hand. Flash forward. It is the year 1920, and the world population is about 1.8 billion. You might live in the countryside, but you could go to the big city for a job in a factory. You may be lucky enough to ditch your horse and buggy for the brand new invention, the car. Want to say hi to granny, you could pick up one of those rotary phones, and you could turn a light bulb on to see at night. Fast forward again to today, the world population is about 7.2 billion. It doesn’t really matter where you were born because we have planes, trains and automobiles. Want to talk to granny? Just # or ‘like’ her latest Instagram post, but not Snapchat cause granny doesn’t know how to snap. Want to do anything at all, just ask your phone.

The quality of life has increased dramatically over time, and this is largely due to the availability of energy to power our lights, machines, phones, cars and devices. However, as the population of this planet increases, we put more strain on the global supply of fossil fuels and the environment. You’ve probably heard somewhere on the news, or heard someone talking, or read in an article something about the energy crisis, and this is a very real problem. The gasoline from your cars and the coal and natural gas burned in power plants to keep our phones charged pump dangerous gases into the atmosphere. These gases are clearly a major contributing factor to the rise in temperature of the planet. Water levels will rise and coastal cities will flood, super storms will become more violent, and resources will become scarcer causing more competition and violence to attain them. At current usage rates, it is likely we will run out of oil, gas and coal in your lifetime. Sound scary? It is.

But we humans are pretty good at solving problems, and there is so much free energy around us. Wind powers giant wind turbines to create energy. Solar panels use energy from the sun to create energy or to heat giant tubs of water to evaporate into steam and power turbines. We dam rivers to run water over turbines in hydroelectric power plants. We even use heat from the earth to turn water into steam and power turbines. However renewables only account for 10-20% of the energy generation on the planet, and that demand keeps going up and the developing world industrializes.

Then you’ve got nuclear energy. Every nuclear power plant today is a fission reactor. With fission, we take really big atoms like uranium and plutonium and break them down into smaller atoms. Fission creates massive amounts of energy, but it also creates massive amounts of nuclear waste which has to be put into barrels and buried for millions of years. There is also a limited supply of nuclear fuel, maybe a couple hundred years, and the safety and security risks around the radioactive waste make nuclear fission unpopular. It doesn’t look too great, but there is one energy source that is the holy grail of holy grails and would solve all of the world’s energy problems tomorrow.

Can you think of an energy source that is so powerful that at 93 million miles away it will literally burn your retinas out of your eyes if you stare at it for too long? The sun operates by nuclear fusion. This is different from fission which was discussed above. Where fission is splitting a really big atoms, fusion works by smashing two very small atoms together like hydrogen, and making helium. When you smash these two hydrogens together, the resulting helium atom is just a tiny bit lighter than the two hydrogen atoms. You’ve heard 2+2 = 4, this is more like 2+2 = 3.999999. That tiny little bit of mass is converted completely into energy. Ever heard of that famous Einstein equation E = mc2? The E is energy (what we want). The ‘m’ is mass (that tiny little bit of difference between the hydrogen and helium). And the c (this is the important part), the c is the speed of light. That’s 670,600,000 miles per hour. And then it’s squared. That’s a lot of zeros. So moral of the story, tiny bit of mass is A LOT of energy.

So where do we find the fuel for this magical fusion? What has hydrogen in it? Water! Have you ever seen a picture of earth from space? We have A LOT of water. And remember how fission had nuclear waste? Well there is much less nuclear waste from fusion, and the waste is safe to humans in hundreds of years, not millions of years. Can you imagine a world where we had an almost infinite energy supply (fusion) from an essentially unlimited fuel supply (sea water)? Energy would be free. Wars over oil and fossil fuels would stop tomorrow. We would stop burning fossil fuels, and the only place you’d find gasoline powered automobiles would be museums. So great, fusion sounds awesome, why are we wasting time reading this blog, let’s go fuse some stuff now right?

Wrong. We’ve been working at this for a long time, and it’s not easy. You’ve got to get two positively charged atoms together, and they don’t want to get close. Ever tried to push the positive side of two magnets together? It’s kind of like that times on a much bigger scale. In order to do this, we have to heat the reactants up into a material called a plasma, and that takes a lot of energy to start. The only places we’ve been able to create the conditions to start fusion on Earth are in thermonuclear explosions. The sun can do this because it’s really big and has gravity on its side but much harder in a lab. You’re essentially making a tiny star in the lab. Then you have to contain the little star which is a whole other set of engineering challenges. This was in fact the entire premise behind the 2004 movie Spiderman 2, where Dr. Octopus makes a fusion reactor, and then he goes crazy. We’ve been able to create fusion reactions on Earth as a proof of concept, but only for very short periods of time, seconds, before the reaction stops. Though people have been seriously researching fusion since the 1950’s, commercial fusion power plants are still out of reach. This is a problem that will probably be solved by the next generation of scientists who are middle school students today, so if you really want to save the world and think about going into fusion research, I guarantee the vine or snapchat of the first sustainable fusion reaction will get a lot of likes.

A Lifetime of Curiosity

by Robert (Bud) Talbot, PhD

Dr. Talbot’s STEM of choice is Science with a focus on physics education. He now works for The University of Colorado Denver, as an assistant professor of science education in the School of Education and Human Development. Dr. Talbot helps to recruit and train new secondary school science teachers, and does research on teaching and learning science at the university level. In his spare time, outside of work, Dr. Talbot loves to run, work with technology (especially amateur radio!), engage in citizen science projects, and do sciency things with his 6 year old twin daughters. If there was one thing he wished he had known before college about STEM, it would be “how being scientifically literate shapes the way you do anything and everything in the world!”

He studied for many years to get where he is, first at Indiana University for degrees in Geology and science education (BS and MS), then at the University of Colorado Boulder for a PhD in science education, researching how to develop tests and surveys to be used in science teaching and learning.

Introduction

My bio is above, but that is not who I am. Here’s the truth about me: I’m a geek and I’ve always been a geek. I love geeky things like technology, computing, and amateur radio. But I also love to be active. I’m totally obsessed with running and I love to dig deep into all of the data related to my running: GPS tracks, heart rate, power output, pace- lots of numbers! All of this geekery was instilled in me early on. I was lucky enough to grow up in a family where we spent a lot of time outdoors, camping, hiking, taking crazy roadtrips. Did I mention maps? I LOVE maps. They are everywhere in my house. Anyway, back to my childhood. My mom told me that I once went to the public library at the age of 6 and asked for a book on “splitting atoms.” Of course I don’t recall that, but I bet it was a cool book. I didn’t know it at the time, but I was well on my way to being a science teacher.

Materials and Methods

Degrees can only tell you so much about a person’s STEM career, here’s my actual journey: I thought I wanted to be an accountant when I started college. My brother in law was an accountant and I really looked up to him. But the classes turned out to be really boring! Then I discovered Geology. What fun! Maps, rocks, lots of camping and hiking. That was the best. So now I was on my way to being a geologist. Well, I ended up taking a few years off from school before finishing (long story…) during which time I realized that my true passion was trying to help others see how cool science was. I was always asking questions and getting others to geek out with me. So it seemed natural that I should be a teacher!

I went back to school and became a high school physics and Earth science teacher. It was a great experience, and I was fortunate enough to learn a lot and build lasting relationships with many of my students. I know that my work made a difference. After seven years of teaching, I yearned for more learning and to work with teachers, so I went to graduate school in Boulder. It was there that I learned about research on teaching and learning, which prepared me for the job I now have as a professor.

Results

Right now, I am focusing on undergraduate science education at my job as an assistant professor. We help other professors to think about better ways to teach biology, chemistry, and physics at the university, and investigate the impacts of innovative teaching on how students learn. Our main focus is to help students in these courses succeed and become prepared to pursue their future goals. Our work is making a difference!

Discussion

I love science education, and especially physics, and here’s why: it really helps me to see how important it is to have a scientific worldview. I can apply scientific reasoning to any aspect of my life. Not only is that fun, it is useful. Many of the skills and dispositions that we use as scientists (like curiosity, research methods, and writing ability) are useful in all aspects of life. And my interest in physics and Earth sciences lets me do lots of fun things in my spare time, like amateur radio (my callsign is W0RMT), and participating in citizen science projects (check out CoCoRaHS, mPING, CWOP, SETI@home, and LHC@home).

Science is everywhere, and it’s fun and useful. It leads to a lifetime of curiosity!   

Canis lupus familiarus: A ridiculous story of artificial selection

By Dr. Debbie Rook

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“Natural Selection” is a complicated and intricate biological concept that often trips up the most educated and well-read among us. To get to that, we’re first going to start with something we all can relate to and understand- specifically, breeding or “artificial selection”. This means specifically that people are the selecting what traits are passed on to the next generation, instead of nature.

Think of a dog, any dog. You may know a chihuahua down the street or your great aunt’s mastiff. Dogs come in amazingly different varieties, different sizes, weights, strengths, hair, tails, ears, noses… you name it! You probably have heard that the dog came from wild wolves, which even look like a few breeds (huskies and malamutes, mostly). But how did we get there? How is that even possible to get so much change in just a couple of thousand years?

Artificial selection is the answer. Back in the days long ago (around 130,000 years ago), there were likely wolves that hung out around farmers or nomadic tribes because there was easy food to get- whether it be cattle or other farm animals, the rabbits that came to eat crops, or simply leftover scraps that were either discarded or given to the wolves willingly. Over time, the wolves that had a nicer temperament (less biting, better smiles), would be given more scraps (think if a stray dog came up to you at a park- would you share your ham sandwich if it was growling at you or cuddled next to your side?). This was the beginning of a beautiful relationship between the more tame of the wolves and the humans. Now, how was this really selecting? The humans were not breeding these dogs yet, nor were the animals even living with them, so how could that change the population? Simple- food. The nicer dogs are more likely to get scraps from the humans, and therefore more likely to survive the winter and reproduce, while the mean wolves got no scraps and had to fend for themselves. Slowly over time, the scrap-grabbing would change into cohabitation of tame wolves and humans, which would allow those dogs to have even more offspring, because they were being actively cared for by the humans. And that’s how you get dogs! Bring a nice wolf into your house and in a couple (hundred) generations you’ll have yourself a dog (but don’t try this at home…).

So that’s great, a slow change in the population over thousands of years got us from nasty predator wolves to tame live-in dogs. But how did we go from wolf-like dogs (big, sharp teeth, long noses, pointy ears) to all the different kinds today (big/small, variable teeth, long/short/pug noses, pointy/droopy ears)? That is where serious artificial selection comes in, breeding.

Say you are a farmer and need a dog to look after your flock of sheep. You start with the basic wolf-dog and you select for traits that you want. Specifically, you want a dog that is kind to you and your sheep but will scare away other animals. So you take all your dogs and find the ones that meet those criteria best. They won’t be perfect yet, maybe it will sometimes snap at you or a sheep, but otherwise just likes to chase off coyotes. You mate the two together that have the best traits. Those offspring then will have a smaller range of these traits closer to your ideal. It’s possible that in one generation you will have succeeded with at least one of the dogs, but if not you just try again with the next breeding cycle. This also works if you need a dog to pull a sled, or find foxes, or cuddle with your kids, or even carry in your purse. Slowly, over a few generations you can get a lot of change in these animals.

I’ll give you one more example because I think it is so cool. Bull terriers. Bull terriers are known for their noses that are shorter and angled downwards. Here is one:

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This is a very dramatic feature, so you’d think that it would take hundreds or years to get a nose like that from a regular looking dog. BUT…

Here is a bull terrier from 1915.

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And 1918 (for good measure).

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You can see that those noses have changed a lot in the last hundred years. The 1918 picture also shows you a little how this works. If you look at the four dogs, they are all bull terriers and likely related, but there is variation (differences) between the noses. Specifically, the second from the left has a nose that is slightly more downturned than his siblings. If you were trying to make the modern bull terrier, he is the dog you would want to mate to get the next generation.

So you can see that in a few decades you can get dramatic changes in breeds of dog, all by having humans select traits that they like the most. Selective breeding has brought about the multitude of types of dogs that you see today. Hopefully you have a better understanding of this now that you’ve seen it in action!

Next time: nature takes a crack at selecting for different animals, incredible variation, and adaptation occurs.